Thus, there is a need to find innovative and cost-effective strategies to help identify students experiencing high levels of stress to receive appropriate treatment. For example, 1 emotion of love also included emotions of affection, kindness, passion, and longing; 2 emotion of happiness also included emotions of joy, cheerfulness, and excitement; 3 emotion of anger also included emotions of disgust, torment, and judgment; 4 emotion of fear also included emotions of nervousness, stress, and sadness. Results Participants A total of participants completed the survey and were included in our analysis. McCullough M, Larson D. Conclusions The ability to use real-time social media data to provide health surveillance has a significant public health application. Specifically, higher levels of stress and emotion of fear were associated with a greater percentage of negative sentiments and percentage of tweets related to fear. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize baseline demographic characteristics, levels of stress, emotional well-being, and the number of positive, neutral, negative, anger, fear, love, and happiness tweets.
Overall these factors may limit the ability to generalize our findings. An interesting finding in this study, contrary to our hypothesis, was that when individuals experienced a higher level of stress, they were more likely to post tweets related to both fear and love or hope. Ordinal regressions were used to assess whether weekly levels of stress and emotional states anger, fear, love, happiness were associated with the percentage of positive, neutral, negative, anger, fear, love, or happiness tweets. All tweets posted by the participants from that week November 2 to 8, were mined and manually categorized based on their sentiment positive, negative, neutral and emotion anger, fear, love, happiness expressed. We also excluded retweets and only included a week of tweets in our analysis. College can be stressful for many freshmen as they cope with a variety of stressors. The prevalence of white and Asian ethnic groups in this study were underrepresented, whereas African American and Latino ethnic groups were overrepresented in the distribution in UCLA [ 30 ].
Stress and the higher education student: Methods Overview This was a longitudinal observational study that took place during the fall semester of Ambiguous tweets that could not be understood were labeled as unknown.
Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Previous research has identified basic human emotions, which included feelings of anger, fear, love, and happiness [ 2021 ]. The interrater reliability was. An FBI spokesman had no immediate comment. Psychometric measures of stress were constructed to assess the extent to hoemwork individuals find their lives to be overloaded.
Excess stress can negatively affect both psychological and physical health. J Am Coll Health.
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Abstract Background College can be stressful for many freshmen as they cope with a variety of stressors. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.
Retweets were excluded from the analysis, as it was a challenge to interpret the sentiment and emotions. In the annual survey of the American Freshman, the number of students reported feeling overwhelmed and stressed has increased steadily in the last decade [ 3 ].
Previous research has identified basic human emotions, which included feelings of anger, fear, love, and happiness [ 2021 ]. It may be possible that individuals may have expressed their levels of stress and their emotional state in their retweets or outside the time frame that the tweets were captured. Recruitment and Study Protocol Participants were informed about the study through flyers on social media websites and on UCLA campus between September 14 and October 12, Dalgleish T, Power M.
Increased levels of stressful life events have been shown to be associated with anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation in college students [ 6 – 8 ].
Introduction Background College can be stressful for many freshmen as they cope with a variety of academic, personal, and social pressures [ 1 ].
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Another limitation was that the psychometric questionnaires used have not been previously validated. National norms fall Curr Dir Psychol Sci. It may be possible that participants may change their Web-based behavior when they know they are part of the study ie, Hawthorne effect.
The most commonly reported stressors by students were related to attending class, completing homework, and dealing with self-image. Published online Jan J Furth High Educ. Age and gender as determinants of stress exposure, generation, and reactions in youngsters: Users often share their thoughts, feelings, and opinions on these social media platforms, and as a result, social media data may be used to provide real-time monitoring of stress homesork emotional state among college students [ 17 ].
Effects of stress on immune function: An interesting finding in this study, contrary to our hypothesis, was that when individuals experienced a higher level of stress, they were more likely to post tweets related to both fear and love or hope. We combined scores of 1 extremely low with 2 low and 5 extremely high with 4 high. A limitation of gwitter study was limited sample size and that only freshman college students were included.
Stress Level and Emotional State The distribution of stress level and emotional state is displayed in Table 2.