Finally, Kohn urged teachers to involve students in deciding what homework, and how much, they should do. As Figure 1 indicates, homework has decades of research supporting its effective use. Teachers should not abandon homework. However, homework is most effective when it covers material already taught, is given for review, or is used to reinforce skills previously learned. Educational Researcher, 35 5 , 24— In The Battle Over Homework , Cooper determined that the average correlation between the time primary children spent on homework and achievement was around zero. The Cooper a study included more than empirical research reports, and the Cooper, Robinson, and Patall study included about 50 empirical research reports.
In The Battle over Homework , Cooper noted that homework should have different purposes at different grade levels: Certainly, inappropriate homework may produce little or no benefit—it may even decrease student achievement. Subscribe to ASCD Express , our free e-mail newsletter, to have practical, actionable strategies and information delivered to your e-mail inbox twice a month. A number of synthesis studies have been conducted on homework, spanning a broad range of methodologies and levels of specificity see fig. Throughout the first few decades of the 20th century, educators commonly believed that homework helped create disciplined minds. In his early meta-analysis, Cooper a reported the following effect sizes p.
The minute rule was created by the National PTA which suggests 10 minutes per a grade should be assigned e. Does homework improve academic achievement? A comparison of medical research and education research. The end of homework: What is your stance on homework?
Homework or No Homework
Homework is a complicated thing. School Psychology Review, 17 4— Students are spending too much time completing homework assignments instead of playing outside or enjoying leisure activities, which teach and enhance important life skills. The pattern clearly indicates that homework has smaller effects at lower grade levels. However, homework is most effective when it covers material already taught, is given for review, or is used to reinforce skills previously learned.
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Special Topic / The Case For and Against Homework
Parents’ reported involvement in students’ homework: These investigations, taken cumulatively, can inform the work of versua who are building their own local knowledge bases on medical care. This is the nature of homwwork errs on the side of assuming that something does not work until vetsus evidence establishes that it does. The Homework Debate The homework debate often focuses on how and why homework affects student learning and achievement.
Homework can help establish communication between parents and children; it can be used as a form of discipline; and it can inform parents about school topics and activities. Although the research support for homework is compelling, the case against homework is popular. Students learn the content skills and concepts from the lesson taught at school.
These authors criticized both the quantity and quality of homework. Teachers do not expect parents to act as experts regarding content or to attempt to teach the content.
The Case For and Against Homework – Educational Leadership
School-based home instruction and learning: Homework assignments must be well-designed. Certainly, inappropriate homework may produce little or no benefit—it may even decrease student achievement. This characteristic is important because U. Figure 1 includes synthesis studies that go back as far as 60 years, yet all that research translates to a handful of recommendations articulated at a very general level.
The frequency and duration of each assignment does not necessarily suggest a correlation between homework and student achievement. Instead, educators should combine research-based generalizations, research from related areas, and their own professional judgment based on firsthand experience to develop specific practices and make adjustments as necessary. As Figure 1 indicates, homework has decades of research supporting its effective use.
How important is the quality of the assignments? The correlation between homework and student achievement is inconsistent. Some students are given hours of work while other students are assigned little or no work to be done at home.
The authors called for people to unite against homework and to lobby for an extended school day instead. A synthesis of research, — Most studies show positive effects for certain students, others suggest no effects, and some even suggest negative effects according to research by Alfie Kohnan independent scholar Although teachers across the K—12 spectrum commonly assign homework, research has produced no clear-cut consensus on the benefits of homework at the early elementary grade levels.