In fact his mother had died when Riemann was 20 while his brother and three sisters all died young. Other highlights include his work on abelian functions and theta functions on Riemann surfaces. Weierstrass had shown that a minimising function was not guaranteed by the Dirichlet Principle. For other people with the surname, see Riemann surname. He learnt much from Eisenstein and discussed using complex variables in elliptic function theory. Monastyrsky writes in [6]:

God Created the Integers. Riemann studied the convergence of the series representation of the zeta function and found a functional equation for the zeta function. A Poster of Bernhard Riemann. The fundamental object is called the Riemann curvature tensor. However, Riemann’s thesis is a strikingly original piece of work which examined geometric properties of analytic functions, conformal mappings and the connectivity of surfaces. Honours awarded to Bernhard Riemann Click a link below for the full list of mathematicians honoured in this way. The Riemann hypothesis was one of a series of conjectures he made about the function’s properties.

In the second part of the dissertation he examined the problem which he described in these words: The Dirichlet Principle which Riemann had used in his doctoral thesis was used by him again for the results of this paper.

Through the work of David Hilbert in the Calculus of Variations, the Dirichlet principle was finally established. In fact his mother had died when Riemann was 20 while his brother and three sisters all died young. Riemann held his first lectures inwhich founded the field of Riemannian geometry and thereby set the stage for Albert Einstein ‘s general theory of relativity.

It is difficult to recall another example in the history of nineteenth-century mathematics when a struggle for a rigorous proof led to such productive results.


It is a beautiful book, and it would be interesting to know how it was received. One-dimensional Line segment ray Length. Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann German: Line segment ray Length. However, once there, he began studying mathematics under Carl Friedrich Gauss specifically his lectures on the method of least squares.

The Riemann hypothesis was one of a series of conjectures he made about the function’s properties.

bernhard riemann habilitation dissertation

His strength declined rapidly, and he himself felt that his end was near. The Dirichlet Principle did not originate with Dirichlethowever, as GaussGreen and Thomson had all made use if it. In fact, at first approximation in a geodesic coordinate system such a metric is flat Euclidean, in the same way that a curved surface up to higher-order terms looks like its tangent plane.

In riemwnn mathematical apparatus developed from Riemann’s address, Einstein found the frame to fit his physical ideas, his cosmologyand cosmogony: Riemann’s published works opened up research areas combining analysis with geometry.

Bernhard Riemann

He examined multi-valued functions as single valued over a special Riemann surface and solved general inversion problems which had been solved for elliptic integrals by Abel and Jacobi. The physicist Hermann von Helmholtz assisted him in the work over night and returned with the comment that it was “natural” and “very understandable”. Klein writes in [4]: Prior to the appearance of his most recent work [ Theory of abelian functions ]Riemann was almost unknown to mathematicians.

He asked what the dimension of real space was and what geometry described real space. According to Detlef Laugwitz[11] automorphic functions appeared for the first time in an essay about the Laplace equation on electrically charged cylinders. During the rest of the century Riemann’s results exerted a tremendous influence: Although this attempt failed, it did result in Riemann finally being granted a regular salary.


However Riemann was not the only mathematician working on such ideas. Riemann considered a very different question to the one Euler had considered, for he looked at the zeta function as a complex function rather than a real one.

bernhard riemann habilitation dissertation

Riemann however used such functions for conformal maps such as mapping topological triangles to the circle in his lecture on hypergeometric functions or in his treatise on minimal surfaces. In June Riemann married Elise Koch who was a friend of his sister. When Riemann’s work appeared, Weierstrass withdrew his paper from Crelle’s Journal and did not publish it.

For example, the Riemann—Roch theorem Giemann was a student of Riemann says something about the number of linearly independent differentials with known conditions on the zeros and poles of a Riemann surface.

Bernhard Riemann ()

It therefore introduced topological methods into complex function theory. Riemann was a dedicated Christian, the son of a Protestant minister, and saw his life as a mathematician as another way to serve God. Although only eight students attended the lectures, Riemann was completely happy.

The second part of Riemann’s lecture riemanm deep questions about the relationship of geometry to the world we live in.