This article argues that the threat of female genital mutilation should give rise to political asylum. In this article she also describes the contents of Alice Walker’s novel. Countless women and children from these countries undergo these procedures and suffer the consequences in the long run. The United States, did refuse to deport the woman but did not grant her political asylum. The author describes various legislation by states that has attempted to end the practice of female genital mutilation.

It is seen as disgusting if they are not virgins before they get married. This book provided much information of where the people who are undergoing this procedure are coming from. Instead, women and their spouse should be encouraged to attend counseling about its harmful effects to prevent them from going to a lay practitioner. Doctor Toubia also describes the cultural purposes of female circumcision. The author argues that one reason for this is because of fear that doing so will dramatically increase the amounts of immigrants seeking refugee status.

They show that there is an outstanding amount of women from African culture that are subjected to this procedure which causes irreversible damage. Finally, the article calls for the legal condemnation of the practice of female genital mutilation in the United States. Most importantly in this article, Doctor Toubia describes the physical complications associated with this practice. Many of the items they use to perform these surgeries are not sterile or clean and can cause many health issues. The author teamed up with a prestige documentary creator to create a documentary to show people exactly what female genital mutilation is and how it affects many women.

Finally, the article explores the varying constitutional issues that may arise bibliograohy legislation aimed at criminalizing the procedures.

annotated bibliography on fgm

This book provided much information of where the people who are undergoing this procedure are coming from. The Kaiser Family Foundationwhich focuses on health and policy, can be located at http: The author describes the use of this process as a means of dominating hibliography women.


She argues that the procedure should be called mutilation, because that is exactly what it is. There is an Islamic ordinance that requires that rape victims be jailed for adultery. She analogizes this to the feelings of women who undergo genital mutilation.

Female Genital Mutilation

This article also examines the problems that occur in trying to outlaw the practice of female genital mutilation. It then examines the origins of the practice of female genital mutilation. The article concludes with an examination of the laws used to attempt prevention of female genital mutilation. The purpose of this article seemed to be to explore the cross-cultural views of the practice of female genital mutilation.

This article, is actually an essay examining the practice of female genital mutilation in two context, through the actual practice of the procedure, including the reasons advanced for its necessity, and through Alice Walker’s novel, Possessing the Secret of Joy.

For example, she explains that the Muslims believe that it is a religious necessity to bbiliography women to genital mutilation. Reproductive Freedom [and Rights.

He describes the practice of female circumcision as discrimination. Rather, the author argues, we should encourage education of these women so that they can put a stop to it.

The article describes two different immigration hearings where women were seeking to not be deported in order to protect their daughters from female circumcision. Sexual Orientation renamed ; originally titled ” Lesbianism ” www.

Female Genital Mutilation

The procedure is often irreversible both with the physical and mental scars it leaves. In many countries, there is a cultural bias against women.


annotated bibliography on fgm

Honor is dependent on their sexual acts annotxted well as fidelity after they are married. For example, legislation was proposed to prohibit the procedure on American soil. The reader should also be able to understand the need for educating women of the world about their bodies, so that this process can be stopped.

Finally, the reader should have an understanding of the need to grant the status of refugee to women who are threatened with this barbaric ritual. The Center for Reproductive Law and Policywhich focuses on promoting women’s equality worldwide by guaranteeing reproduction rights as human rights, can be located at http: Send questions and comments to: And in some cultures, if a woman is raped, she may be forced to marry her attacker or sometimes she is killed to protect the family honor.

The author argues that there are no constitutional obstacles to prohibit the practice in the United States, but that the criminalization of the practice may not decrease its occurrence.

Women’s Studies Links to search engines, databases, organizations, internet resources, publications, and other resources, historical sites, health-related sites, etc, can be found at: It explains that the United States does not have laws to protect immigrants from the risk of genital mutilation.

The focus of this bibliograpyh is the legal battle of an mother seeking to suspend her deportation to protect her two daughters from female genital mutilation.

annotated bibliography on fgm

It is seen as disgusting if they are not virgins before they get married.