This led to migrations of people and resources westward into Europe which was more tolerant to intensive agriculture as a result of its rainier climate. The Experience of Kenya and Tanzania. Yet despite much of its arid climate there are regions where agriculture was conducive yet never became established. Also important to the transition from hunter-gatherer to city-dwelling agrarian societies was the presence of ‘large’ domesticable animals, raised for meat, work, and long-distance communication. Diamond identifies six criteria including the animal being sufficiently docile, gregarious, willing to breed in captivity and having a social dominance hierarchy. Guns, Germs, and Steel focuses on why some populations succeeded. Jared Diamond’s Guns, Germs, and Steel.
What do historians think of Jared Diamond? A short history of everybody for the last 13, years , London: Europe’s many natural barriers allowed the development of competing nation-states. Similar circumstances were observed in the History of Australia and in the History of South Africa. Retrieved November 16, Who has read Guns, Germs, and Steel? Diamond argues that Eurasian civilization is not so much a product of ingenuity, but of opportunity and necessity.
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What is Jared Diamond’s theory of geographic luck? The crucial trap for the development of agriculture is the availability of wild edible plant species suitable for domestication.
Retrieved September 21, He also makes the intriguing argument that all large mammals that could be domesticated, have been. Additionally, Diamond seems to regard all civilizational and societal motivations as being mechanistic or darwinist in character.
Why were Europeans able to master guns, germs and steel before other peoples could? Diamond argues that Eurasian civilization is not so much a product of ingenuity, but of opportunity and necessity. This region, lying close to the north of Australia was blessed by geography in a manner which much of Australia was not.
For Diamond, it was the ultimate factors applying at much larger geographical and temporal scales. Retrieved July 9, This is the sample guna that particular thesis with this you can evaluate the answer of this particular question. It has been argued that hunting and gathering represents an adaptive strategywhich may still be exploited, if necessary, when environmental change causes extreme food stress for agriculturalists.
The 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. As early Western Asian civilizations began to trade, they found additional useful animals in adjacent territories, most notably horses and donkeys for use in transport.
By Steven Henry Martin. Ultimately it was opportunistic trade ventures that helped Europe to compete and have the edge over the other civilizations How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeedfocuses on environmental and other factors that have caused some populations to fail. Cattle and horses arose in Eurasia first and were used there to develop agricultural machinery and form large connected areas of high food production. Darwinian Misadventures in the Humanities, p The New York Times.
Guns, Germs, and Steel – Wikipedia
The rise of nonfarming specialists such as craftsmen and scribes accelerated economic growth and technological progress. For example, he says that when a technologically advanced civilization comes across a civilization that is considerably less advanced — the former tends to conquer or incorporate the latter into itself. How was the book “Guns, Germs, and Steel” received among academics and serious scholars? Yali asked, using the local term ” cargo ” for inventions and manufactured goods, “Why is it that you white people developed so much cargo and brought it to New Guinea, but we black people had little cargo of our own?
This gave rise to many possibilities for human flourishing over thousands of years of history as these human, animal and plant resources diffused across Eurasia. In eteel essay I will explore both Diamond’s historical methodology, its limitations as well as discuss the facts and explanatory power of his arguments and critique them using other historical arguments.
Diamond’s arguments and evidence Diamond covers a lot of ground in his work and starts off by discussing human evolutionary developments before 11, BC on all continents, he talks about the role diamonss geography in shaping societies in the Polynesian islands, the impact of farming and agriculture on the continents, plant and animal domestication from region to region, technology, government and religion.
Guns, Germs, and Steel by Jared Diamond
Although geography had been nearly eliminated as an academic discipline in the United States after the s, several geography-based historical theories were published in the s. A Revolutionary Manumission Abolitionist? Diamond argues geographic, climatic and environmental characteristics which favored early development of stable agricultural societies ultimately led diamoonds immunity to diseases endemic in agricultural animals and the development of powerful, organized states capable of dominating others.
An important example is the use of larger animals such as cattle and horses in plowing land, allowing for much greater crop seel and the ability to farm a much wider variety of land and soil types than would be possible solely by human muscle power.
The peoples of other continents sub-Saharan AfricansNative AmericansAboriginal Australians and New Guineansand the original inhabitants of tropical Southeast Asia have been largely conquered, displaced and in some extreme cases — referring to Native Americans, Aboriginal Australians, and South Africa’s indigenous Khoisan peoples — largely exterminated by farm-based societies such as Eurasians and Bantu.
Agriculture in Aboriginal Australia: Diamond identifies a mere 14 domesticated large mammal species worldwide. The Fates of Human Societies”.