They complained that he celebrated too much the egalitarianism and democracy of a frontier that was rough on women and minorities. The “composite nationality” “melting-pot” ethnicity of many immigrants and cultures merging together ; growing economic autonomy as a result of new domestic merchants who rose to rival foreign importation of goods; proceedings of lawmaking of the national government that utilized a more loose construction of the constitution to facilitate growth and expansion as well as internal improvements for the frontier; the emergence of an American democracy resulting from the emerging individualistic attitudes of settlers as the became more and more secluded from the Eastern civilization; and a new “American intellect” that was pragmatic and individualistic; were all direct results, in some shape or form, of the frontier process. Help us improve this article! Stanford University Press, Micheaux promoted the West as a place where blacks could transcend race and earn economic success through hard work and perseverance. If railroads attracted unparalleled subsidies and investments, they also created enormous labor demands. Annals of the Association of American Geographers.

Philosophy of history , the study either of the historical process and its development or of the methods used by historians to understand their material. Lands that remained unclaimed by tribal members after allotment would revert to federal control and be sold to American settlers. Link William H. The first British settlers in the New World stayed close to the…. Historians, geographers, and social scientists have studied frontier-like conditions in other countries, with an eye on the Turnerian model. Another criticism she held was of the loaded terms Turner had used, namely “progress”. They then ambushed a U.

These soldiers regularly confronted racial prejudice from other Army members and civilians, but were an essential part of American victories during the Indian Wars of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Others, like Lizzie Johnson Williams, helped drive their own herds. They had three children: Although Indian removal had long been a part of federal Indian policy, following the Civil War the U.

Thank you for your feedback. Grossman, The Frontier in American Culture p. Brent, “Electronic communication and sociology: Since Turner had simply cultivated and refined these ideas of American exceptionalism, since they had been floating around for many years prior to him, he had not broke new ground, but found an effective way to make them accessible to scholars and the public alike.


Arthur on American Indian Policy Turner ignored gender and race, downplayed class, and left no room for victims. Turner sets up the East and the West as opposing forces; as the West strives for freedom, the East seeks to control freeerick. The transcontinental crontier crossed western plains and mountains and linked the West Coast with the rail networks of the eastern United States.

He traced the social evolution of frontier life as it continually developed across the continent from the primitive conditions experienced by the explorer, trapper, and trader, through maturing agricultural stages, finally reaching the complexity of city and factory.

Frederick Jackson Turner

Some unmarried women filed claims on their hele, but single farmers male or female were hard-pressed to run a farm and they were a small minority. Wikipedia is a major presence on the electronic frontier, and the Wikipedia editors have been explicitly compared to the pioneers of Turner’s American fgederick in terms of their youth, aggressiveness, boldness, equalitarianism and rejection of limitations.

The United States removed Native groups to ever-shrinking reservations, incorporated the West first as territories and then as states, and, for the first time in its history, controlled the enormity of land between the two oceans.

frederick jackson turners thesis held that the frontier

Companies employed Irish workers in tuners early nineteenth century and Chinese workers in the late nineteenth century. Boyd Frederic C. Comanche bands used designated reservation lands as a base from which to collect supplies and federal annuity goods while continuing to hunt, trade, and raid American settlements in Texas. The Plains were transformed. Then, on August 17,four young men of the Santees, a Sioux tribe, killed thd white settlers near the Redwood Agency, an American administrative office.

Turner and Roosevelt diverged on the exact aspect of frontier life that shaped the contemporary American. Initial clashes between U.


It was cause for the many popular, unrealistic portrayals of frontier women to emerge- either as helpless, fragile beings who needed yhe cowboy to come and rescue them, or the other extreme, a rough, tough, gun-toting wildcat like Annie Oakley. Frontier land was practically free for the taking. This differences aside, they both painted a picture of white victimization—of violent savages that ravaged the poor, defenseless whites, the “badly abused conquerors”.

Ina year-old historian by the name of Frederick Jackson Turner would lay the foundation for future discussion of this topic—he posed his belief that the American frontier was at the root of American exceptionalism.

Crucible of Empire – PBS Online

Much railroad work was dangerous, but perhaps the most hazardous work was done by brakemen. Poor health frontieer his early retirement from Harvard in I can not see why the frontier can not be both.

frederick jackson turners thesis held that the frontier

They would rather live upon the roots and acorns gathered by their women than to work for flour and beef. Turner may have had difficulty writing books, but he was a brilliant master of the historical essay.

frederick jackson turners thesis held that the frontier

Much about the American cowboys evolved from Mexican vaqueros: Railroads created the market for ranching, and for the few years after the war that railroads connected eastern markets with important market hubs such as Chicago, but had yet to reach Texas ranchlands, ranchers began driving cattle north, out of the Lone Star state, to major railroad terminuses in Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska. Dorothy Kinsley Turner later Main was the mother of the historian Jackson Turner Main —a scholar of Revolutionary America who married a fellow scholar.

Potter Joseph Strayer Thomas C.