Lesson organisation This is a student practical, where a lot of the preparation work has been done beforehand. Each point of chlorine application will control a different water contaminant concern, thus providing a complete spectrum of treatment from the time the water enters the treatment facility to the time it leaves. Exchange capacity is the amount of impurity that a given amount of resin is capable of removing and it has units of moles, equivalents or moles. It should be colorless, odorless and tasteless. Due to scale formation boiler tubes clog down. Medicine essays Miscellaneous essays Psychology essays Religious studies essays Science essays Sociology essays Essays menu.

More explosive chemicals are needed for this process. The steam is then cooled and it becomes distilled water. People with hypertension or high blood pressure should consult their doctor about personal health risks associated with drinking softened water because of the added sodium Mechanical filtration removes dirt, sediment, loose scale and insoluble iron and manganese. Granny’s Original and why should we need homework non-branded soap flakes chemistry fine but need to be used in solution as soon coursework they are made. The various examples are: For younger, or less practically experienced students, consider providing the burettes already clamped and full of soap solution. A rapid drop in the disinfectant residual may provide a immediate indication of treatment process malfunction or a break in the integrity of the distribution system.

The hardness of water was determined using the methods of titration, conductivity, and pH analysis. The mechanical filtration does not do much to remove harmful, dissolved chemicals. Small quantities of iron and manganese present as the divalent bicarbonates may also get removed simultaneously.


Investigate the hardness of water in 5 different water solutions

Resins containing basic functional groups —NH2, —OH are capable of exchanging their anions with other anions of hard water. Calgon Testing salts for anions and cations Making an alloy solder What ions cause hardness in water?

Scales or deposits, corrosion and carryover are minimized thereby improving efficiency and reducing harxness consumption, preventing tube failures and unscheduled costly repairs, and reducing deposits, corrosion and contamination in the downstream equipments or processes. The water is fed into cylinder-I where all the cations are replaced by RH2 resins. No such risk of CO2 liberation.

Adjust the level of the solution to zero mark. Synthetic polymers Highly effective sludge conditioners for all types of sludges.

chemistry coursework hardness of water

The hardness of water can never be definitive because the water in Brookings may be different than the water in Sioux Falls. When the resin bed may be a uniform mixture dater cation and anion resins in a volume. The following are possibilities for chlorination as a primary disinfection method: Disadvantages of Coursewwork Process: Chemicals used in internal treatment Phosphates were used as the main conditioning chemical, however nowadays chelate and polymer type chemicals are mostly used.

The units with volatile gas vents can remove some volatile organic chemicals as well.

chemistry coursework hardness of water

This reaction also occurs when rain water containing dissolved carbon dioxide flows over limestone rocks. Swirl to mix, allow to stand, then decant off the clear solution.

With calcium ions xoursework forms a soluble complex and prevents scale and sludge formation. Suspended solids, carried to the boiler by feedwater or subsequently formed inside the boiler, adversely affect both boiler coursewprk and steam purity. Exchange capacity is the amount of impurity that a given amount of resin is capable of removing and it has units of moles, equivalents or moles.


Scales have a thermal conductivity value less than the bare steel. The concentration of salts and sludge in the boiler can be controlled by internal treatment and blow down operation. The water is filtered through carbon granules that trap contaminants. Internal treatment advantages Internal treatment is basically simple and with the help of courseeork qualified consultant an effective program is simply established.

Continuous cold lime-soda softener Hot Lime-Soda Process This process is similar to the cold lime-soda process. This volume should be subtracted from the other volumes before the relative hardnesses are compared.

This experiment should take about 30 minutes. There are two types of water hardness, temporary and permanent.

Hardness of Water – Essay UK Free Essay Database

Zeolite process Lime soda process Ion exchange process Internal treatment: Presence of oil and grease. These minerals in water can cause a few day to day problems.

chemistry coursework hardness of water

These are unaffected by boiling. The reverse osmosis removes inorganic minerals such as radium, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, potassium, nitrate, fluoride, boron and phosphorous. Granny’s Original and other non-branded soap flakes work fine but need to be used in solution as soon as they are made.