It should not have turbidity and other suspended Impurities. Causes for sludge and scale: Read full notes now. Calgon Testing salts for anions and cations Making an alloy solder What ions cause hardness in water? The CT values required to achieve the necessary disinfection depends on the microorganism targeted, pH and temperature. Measuring cylinders 10 cm 3 , 5 one for each of A to E below.

The alkaline water enters the minute holes and cracks by capillary action on the interior of the boiler. It should be moderately soft. Causes of hardness, expression of hardness — units — types of hardness Hardness is defined as the concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions which is expressed in terms of calcium carbonate. Pre-chlorination is found to remove tastes and odors and control biological growth throughout the water treatment system, thus preventing growth in the sedimentation tanks and the filtration media. Carbonate conditioning, Phosphate conditioning, Calgon conditioning, etc. People with hypertension or high blood pressure should consult their doctor about personal health risks associated with drinking softened water because of the added sodium Mechanical filtration removes dirt, sediment, loose scale and insoluble iron and manganese.

Description Soap solution is used to measure the hardness of rain water, temporarily hard water and sea-water. Cation exchange resin is represented as RH2.

Drawbacks of Ion exchange method: Clay, suspended solids, droplets of oil and grease can be removed by treated water and with clarifying agents such as hydrous silicic acid and aluminium hydroxide. So it is less preferred. Prevention of oxygen by chemical method: These droplets of liquid water carry with them some dissolved salts and the suspended impurities. In actual purpose, magnesium hardness is brought down to almost zero but calcium hardness remains about 40 ppm.


It occurs due to priming and foaming. Hard water contains dissolved calcium or magnesium salts that react with soap solution to form an insoluble scum that should be seen as a white cloudiness in the tubes: There are taste and odor problems with chlorine and CDBP.

This process is carried out by using ion exchange resins, which are long chain, cross linked, insoluble organic polymers with a micro process structure. Chemistry in your cupboard: Hot lime-soda process consists of three parts: It can be prevented by special methods like: Resins containing basic functional groups —NH2, —OH are capable of exchanging their anions with other anions of hard water.

chemistry coursework hardness of water

The soft water from this process is used for feeding the boilers. These are the most common four reasons why people install water treatment systems in our home.

Hardness of Water Essay Example for Free – Sample words

H20 Kits, 16 Sept. Special organic materials or synthetic polymers are used to condition magnesium silicate from adhering to the boiler metal. Reduces taste and odor problems caused by algae and some chemical compounds. This is temporarily hard water. This potential relationship is now being investigated.

Investigate the hardness of water in 5 different water solutions

Page last updated July Each point of chlorine application will control a different water contaminant concern, thus providing a complete spectrum of treatment from the time the water enters the treatment facility to the time it leaves. Zeolites process for treating water: Wear eye protection throughout.


They react with soap to produce a deposit called soap curd that remains on the skin and clothes as it is insoluble and sticky, it cannot be removed by rinsing. Permanently hard water contains calcium or magnesium salts other than the hydrogen carbonates.

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This is called as boiler scale. They do not form a stable emulsion and precipitate out overnight.

chemistry coursework hardness of water

At the end point, the colour should be dark blue, with no tinge of wine-red colour. Exchange capacity is the amount of impurity that a given amount of resin is capable of removing and it has units of moles, equivalents or moles.

Scales have a thermal conductivity value which is less than that of the bare steel. The chemostry common stage for chlorination is as a final treatment step to disinfect the water and maintain chlorine residuals that will remain in the water as it travels through the distribution system.